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Gene-Environment Interaction and Cortical Development

“…epigenetic alterations at metastable epialleles are a likely mechanistic link between early nutrition and adult chronic disease susceptibility.” Robert Waterland PhD http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC165709/  https://www.bcm.edu/cnrc/faculty/?PMID=9575

2012, Dec.  Prenatal nutrition, epigenetics and schizophrenia risk: can we test causal effects? Epigenomicsreprints@futuremedicine.com

2012, July  Proteomic, genomic and translational approaches identify CRMP1 (Collapsin response mediator protein 1) for a role in schizophrenia and its underlying Traits  Human Molecular Genetics, July 13, 2012 *

2012, Feb.  Early Life Nutrition and HLA-DQ genotype Have a Combined Influence on the Composition of the Intestinal Microflora, Immune System Development and Sensitivity to Gluten“…could it be that alterations in the environment during the early life of genetically predisposed individuals leads to imbalanced microflora development and immune response to environmental antigens, like gluten, leading to imbalanced physiology? Hold that thought while we discuss this revolutionary study…

As you know, Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA)-DQ genes are the major genetic risk factors in celiac disease. What was not fully understood prior to this recent study was how HLA-DQ genotype influences composition of gut microbiota in infants (2)…Giada De Palma and her Spanish researcher team assessed both HLA-genotype and faecal microbiota (using quantitative PCR) of 146 healthy infants during their first 4 months of life(1). The infants were clustered into two broad groups- breast feeding VS formula feeding- and then were further clustered by into three groups based on HLA-DQ genotype, stratifying for High, Intermediate and Low genetic risk for celiac disease.  

They found that irrespective of milk-feeding type, HLA-DQ genotype influenced the composition of the infant gut microbiota. Specifically the gut microbiota of infants with low genetic risk contained higher levels of species in the Bifidobacterium group, particularly Bifidobacterium longum. Conversely the microbiota of those with high genetic risk contained less Bifidobacterium species and more Staphylococcus species…

What are mechanisms and clinical implications? Due to the fact that HLA class II molecules are largely expressed on lamina propria dentritic cells (DCs)- professional antigen presenting cells (APCs)- genetic variants in HLA-DQ contribute to the magnitude of innate immune system activation upon exposure to microbial and food antigens in the gut lumen.” MIke Mutzel

2012, June The Long and the Short of it: Gene and Environment Interactions During Early cortical Development and Consequences for Long-Term Neurological Disease, Stolp H, Neuhaus A, Sundramoorthi R, Molnár Z., Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford Oxford, UK, Frontiers of Psychiatry. 2012  “The methylation levels of CpG islands of both IGF2R and H19 were higher in alfalfa (HY, fiber) and distiller’s grains (DG, fiber) than corn (CN, starch) fetuses in both males and females. This result is consistent with the low amino acid content of the corn (CN) diet, a source of methyl group donors, compared to HY and DG diets. Thus, results of this study provide evidence of association between maternal nutrition during pregnancy and transcriptomic and epigenomic alterations of imprinted genes and DNMTs in the fetal tissues.”

2003 Association of APOE gene with schizophrenia in Chinese: a possible risk factor in times of malnutritionSchizophrenia Res, 2003  Liu W, Breen G, Zhang J, Li S, Gu N, Feng G, Bai S, Shen T, Xue H, St Clair D and He L.

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