2012, Feb. Early Life Nutrition and HLA-DQ genotype Have a Combined Influence on the Composition of the Intestinal Microflora, Immune System Development and Sensitivity to Gluten. “…could it be that alterations in the environment during the early life of genetically predisposed individuals leads to imbalanced microflora development and immune response to environmental antigens, like gluten, leading to imbalanced physiology? Hold that thought while we discuss this revolutionary study…As you know, Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA)-DQ genes are the major genetic risk factors in celiac disease. What was not fully understood prior to this recent study was how HLA-DQ genotype influences composition of gut microbiota in infants (2)…Giada De Palma and her Spanish researcher team assessed both HLA-genotype and faecal microbiota (using quantitative PCR) of 146 healthy infants during their first 4 months of life(1). The infants were clustered into two broad groups- breast feeding VS formula feeding- and then were further clustered by into three groups based on HLA-DQ genotype, stratifying for High, Intermediate and Low genetic risk for celiac disease. They found that irrespective of milk-feeding type, HLA-DQ genotype influenced the composition of the infant gut microbiota. Specifically the gut microbiota of infants with low genetic risk contained higher levels of species in the Bifidobacterium group, particularly Bifidobacterium longum. Conversely the microbiota of those with high genetic risk contained less Bifidobacterium species and more Staphylococcus species…What are mechanisms and clinical implications? Due to the fact that HLA class II molecules are largely expressed on lamina propria dentritic cells (DCs)- professional antigen presenting cells (APCs)- genetic variants in HLA-DQ contribute to the magnitude of innate immune system activation upon exposure to microbial and food antigens in the gut lumen.” MIke Mutzel
2012, Aug. Diet-induced dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiota and the effects on immunity and disease. Brown K, DeCoffe D, Molcan E, Gibson DL. Nutrients, 2012 Department of Biology, University of British Columbia Okanagan, Kelowna, BC, Canada
2012, Feb. Influence of Milk-Feeding Type and Genetic Risk of Developing Coeliac Disease on Intestinal Microbiota of Infants: The PROFICEL Study. De Palma, G., Capilla, A., Nova, E., Castillejo, G., Varea, V., Pozo, T., Garrote, J. A., et al. (2012). (M. M. Heimesaat, Ed.)PLoS ONE, 7(2), e30791. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0030791.t010 .